22 December 2014 Published in Other Submissions Written by  Liviu Dinu

How to use children to get power

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The protection of the fundamental rights of our children represents the future of our planet. Over the last years, authorities from Western European countries claimed to be confronted with various problems caused by the phenomenon of migration and the presence in their country of Roma ethnic minority[1] coming from East European countries. One of the most visible source of anxiety is related to begging[2] on the public space of the cities[3] and the increasingly visible involvement of children[4] in begging activities.[5]

How has children’s presence in this unsuitable position occurred? What prevents authorities from taking actions towards the active social protection and assistance of these children in line with their dramatic situation and the status as children?

In this paper I will critically examine a number of sociological explanations’ for the presence of Roma children in begging and also to consider what is the position of the state in relation to protection of their children’s rights and their best interest.

I argue that the state is producing a new form of ”institutional racism”[6] under a cover of „unintentional racism”[7] by turning a blind eye to the children’s universal rights in order to stigmatize and restrict social and geographical mobility of Roma ethnic minority due to their ethnic origin.

This present effort is based on the analysis of the phenomenon, of its complexity as well as of its socio-economic and political implications. Therefore some theoretical aspects of social and political behaviour require clarification, and also the identification of how best to limit and control any type of social or institutional performance in relation with racism. I will study this processes through a sociological perspective of its manifestation respectively as a social process that involves many stages, different actors, the relationship between these actors, and factors associated with it.

Globalization phenomenon vowed „a community without borders, a common home and a shelter for all. Such universality would be the promise of a life plenary, the principle of which must be discovered”.[8] However, this promise is challenged by several phenomena which marks global processes as: the nature of global politics, the balance of military and political power; the endorsement of other civilizations; the influence of the economic or the companies’ role. In the last century, the globalization phenomenon and it’s „increasingly fragile dominance”[9] strongly redesigned the mobility of financial, products, services, knowledge and individuals[10] into a growing, debated and inevitable social phenomenon. International Organization for Migration report from assumed that between: 2005 – 2010, the number of immigrants worldwide increased with 23 million (12%) reaching 214 million migrants. More recent report of United Nations, World Migration in Figures[11] indicated that 232 million individuals are considered immigrants at the end of 2013. Therefore, the most important distinctions among peoples are not ideological, political or economic, but cultural. For the man of modern society, globality and intimate social space have become contrary to fundamental values, desired or rejected for some true obsessions located in the centre of aspirations, conflicts or existential repulsion. Projections on the future of many individuals are now more than ever expressed in terms of mobility, free option on place of residence. For them the notion of "home" has a completely different meaning than the original.

Everett Lee's theory on voluntary migration[12] synthesized a series of factors related to migration process. Push factors, shaped by an existent unfavourable situation in relation with their "habitus"[13] that adversely affects the individuals and (if the case) their families. Pull factors are associated on one hand with the desirability of individuals for living into a better climate than country of origin and on the other hand the contemporary migration is driven by a demand for skilled „human capital”[14] for fulfil the labour market.[15] Similarly, Zimmermann and Kahanec outline that some that the factors of migration are associated to the expectancy of a better life, family reunion or to escape from economic, social or physical persecution.[16] Therefore, decision to emigrate towards West European countries seems a justified form of „struggle to survive and to prosper, to escape in security and poverty, and to move in response to opportunity”.[17] Nevertheless, in both situations, either in the country of origin or within the country of destination, there are factors or aspects that could constitute obstacles with lower or greater impact on their quest for a better live that tends to drive them back.[18] This dualism of directions on the evolving lives of most individuals is associated on one hand with freedom of movement as a sign of social promotion, career advancement and success and immobility and on the other hand as a sign of defeat, missed life and backwardness.

No doubt that the phenomenon of begging is a social phenomenon particularly important for society and with special loads that can be analysed from different perspectives. The research in the field in relation to Roma children conducted by civil society and authorities make assertion in three major directions.

Firstly, some of the children identified are migrating alone willing to beg in order to participate to their family’s income. This children are living together with their parents or relatives. Secondly, there are abandoned children, ran away from home and homeless. Thirdly, many Roma children are brought to destination countries by child traffickers[19] for the purpose of begging as well as for purposes as: slavery[20], sexual exploitation, organ trafficking or illegal adoption.[21]

Put side to side, previous research[22] as well as a large part of mass media[23], shows a clear and worrying connection between involvement in begging phenomenon of Roma children[24] and human trafficking.[25] In 2002, the International Organisation for Migration estimated a number of 20,000 women are trafficked from Romania each year[26] were 10-15% of them are minors.[27]According to ERRC research conducted in 2011 in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia and Romania[28], around 50% of trafficked person identified by authorities as Romanian citizens, are members of Roma ethnic minority[29] and more than 20% of victims of human trafficking were found to be children.

Subsequent, there are strong and diverse legal frameworks that promote the rights of the child without any discrimination. The international conventions[30] and European treaties[31] promote and enforce solidarity between generations and protection of the children’s rights and condemns any involvement in the provision of children for begging activities. Finding a child in begging activities could fall into the category of forced labour, being defined as: “work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily.”[32]

Likewise, „the children who are moved from one location to another for the purposes of exploitation are considered as being trafficked” whether the context of involving the children by an adult was with the child´s agreement or demand.[33] Additionally, the national legal frameworks of European countries explicitly are punishing with imprisonment child exploitation, child labour or child trafficking.[34] Therefore, the governments have the primary responsibility for child protection. Governments also have the ultimate responsibility to provide the financial resources necessary to implement policies and programs on behalf of children.[35]

Nonetheless, the social integration of any individual is proportionally with the obedience to the norms, principles and rules imposed by society, any other behaviour being considered as deviant.[36] Consequently the begging phenomenon is considered an antisocial behaviour[37] that leads to the discomfort of local citizens[38] actuality defined by policies - with some exceptions as Norway - as antisocial behaviour[39]of individuals and positioned along with other criminal acts that demand a necessary law enforcement and intervention as such. Therefore, Roma beggars, including children, are perceived to be threat to public order, undesirable inhabitants that are encroaching both on tourist and business destinations[40], as well as threatening locals or tourist’s privacy or security and the cities´ aesthetics.[41]

Instead regarding this as a social problem that must receive assistance, the authorities choose to criminalize or to popularize view against the begging activities[42] disregarding the protection of minors, and to use it as one aspect of their motivation for enforcing evacuation, camp dismantlement and repatriation.[43] One of the best examples are outlets or articles promoted by the Sunday Express[44] or the Daily Mail Online[45] where in a very populist and subjective manner they suggest that the purpose of Roma coming to the UK is to commit various crimes. "Die Weltwoche" newspaper from Switzerland, published a photo of a dark-skinned child who turns a gun toy to readers, bearing the title "Roma are coming: Robberies in Switzerland” around an article that wants to signal danger from Roma criminality, including underage criminality.[46] Moreover, Roma children who are in begging are associated in public opinion together with Roma adults with criminal activity and anti-social behaviour.[47]

In France, Roma have been considered as being „incapable of assimilating into French society and should be sent back to their home countries”[48]. As a result, between 2009 and 2013, about 30,000 Roma were repatriated by French authorities.[49] Despite criticism of the French president, who was accused of using the actions related to Roma and their camps, to try to recover votes lost to the far right, anti-immigration policies, the results of a survey commissioned by "Le Figaro", held in August 3 to 5, 2010, showed that around 80 % of the French population agree with the government´s measures towards the Roma population.

In the same way, the government from Denmark, similarly repatriated Roma regardless of the life threatening conditions that they may face upon return to their country-of-origin.[50]The United Kingdom government furthermore adopted the same position of ethnic profile identification[51] and deported many Roma on their country of origin.[52]

Nevertheless, Arash Abizadeh (2008) argues that the state, does not have the right to exclude in a unilateral manner an entire ethnic group in the name of preserving the security of the nation.[53] According to Joseph Carens any actions that restrain the development of a person because the geographical area where he was born, represents a feudal form which has nothing to do with democratic principles.[54]

Yet, there is a pivotal contradiction between the international laws and commitments of EU member states to create and implement policies for Roma and the national policies and measures concerning their rights of freedom of movement, social inclusion, and social protection in the context of their migration in Europe.[55]On this issue, host and home countries authorities seemed to collaborate quite effectively on an official level. On August 2008 French and Romanian government signed a bilateral agreement for the protection, return and re-integration of unaccompanied Romanian minors in France "co-operation with a view to the protection of Romanian minors in difficulty in the territory of the French Republic and on their return to their country of origin, and for the fight against exploitation networks"[56]. However civil society argued that: „The sole purpose of this agreement seems facilitating the removal of children considered undesirable in our territory even that under Article 3 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the protection of minors must prevail, whatever their origin and location.”[57] Moreover, research shows that despite the authorities from receiving countries seeming to be aware of Roma children’s situation and of exploitation of children for begging[58]only 27% of Roma victims of trafficking were contacted by the authorities in person[59]. Additionally, to hinder the right to free movement of Roma in Europe, the authorities choose to criminalize or to popularize views against begging activities[60] and to use it as one aspect of their motivation for enforcing evacuation, camp dismantlement and repatriation.[61] Similarly, the Agreement between Romania and Switzerland[62] was challenged by civil society organizations that represent just a cover for the unjustified expulsions of Roma from Switzerland.[63]

While officially Romania is promoting an inclusion policy, in bilateral relations Romania apparently promotes a Roma policy based on two contradicting pillars. First, Roma are not (only) a Romanian “problem”, but a European one, arguing that Roma are not (really/ethnically) Romanians, even if they are Romanian citizens. Secondly, in concrete cases - such as repatriation or the case of the young Roma beaten this year in France[64] - Romania assumes its international obligations as country of citizenship - to pay for health treatments or to collaborate for repatriation). In this framework, the individual interests of Romanian Roma ethnic minority members seems sometimes forgotten by the authorities of both countries.

Correspondingly, regardless of the fact that about 10% of the victims identified nationally fall are used for the purpose of being forced into begging[65] the Romanian government has no concern about the presence of children in begging phenomenon. On contrary, for the Romanian government, these children represent a significant problem of image - "a few hundred people affect the prestige and image of over 20 million Romanians"[66] - and cannot be considered a result of the lack of access to opportunities, structural poverty, marginalisation and discrimination.[67]As the National Agency against Human Trafficking in Romania´s official position shows, the institution is not interested in the trafficking of Roma, stating that addressing ethnicity in anti-trafficking policies „is an additional burden” that the agency does not want to take on.[68] This opposite standpoints, reveal a major breach between what measures should authorities take in relation to the situation of children in position of begging or at the risk of becoming victims of exploitation and the measures that they actually are taking.

Raymond Boudon functionalist theory described social system as an integrated set of functional elements and the fundamental unit of analysis of sociology is the society and not the individual and that this functionalist model is abstract and flexible enough to be applied to different types of concerns.[69] Rubington and Weinberg argued that a social problem exists when "a significant number of individuals believe that a certain social situation is incompatible with their values ​​and should act to remove this situation".[70] Ensuing this, Roma children’s that are begging on the street should actuality perceived by the public as being victims of a major social issue that is unsuited with their rights and status of children. Therefore, in accordance with the public and cultural values promoted by the society Roma children status and best interest should prevail against picturing them as public threat[71] or actors involved in antisocial behaviour. Similarly, since good faith, good will, the presumption of innocence and individual responsibility[72] - as opposite to collective responsibility, considered to be ”barbarous” (Lewis, 1948) - are declared principles of Western liberal societies, to presume an entire ethnicity collectively guilty seems against all the above. However, John Rex argues that functionalist model cannot be scientifically valid because it is a tool of political power in order to justify the ideological level authority where no social consensus is the main condition, but the conflict.[73] Alan Sears (2008) is taking a step forward and arguing that the State assists for the specific interests of the dominant category although proclaiming to represent the interests of all. Following this, reaching in a position to beg on the public space could be considered as an effect of social exclusion resulting from a combination of deprivations and the impossibility to reach a level of functionality.[74]

As a result, a breach occur and even disruption in the social relationship with the others member of society[75] and a situation where they have "fallen through the social safety net”.[76] Representation and full participation of underprivileged groups represent just a projection based on illusion and ideology.[77] As a result, structured and recurrent patterns of unequal distributions generates unequal distribution of resources and opportunities creating social inequality.[78] Furthermore, the social inequality avoids and hinders societal advancement as those in power limit the powerless people in order to uphold the status quo.[79] The social exclusion of Roma ethnic minority takes away children of their childhood and hampers them from accessing equal chances to having a future, continuing to perpetuate this cycle of insecurity and fight for surviving from one generation to the other.[80] The balance of power between the state and the value of citizenship, human rights and children rights is using the system of criminal law as a tool for expulsion of foreigners in the name of „protection” of their citizens but also of those expelled.

Investigating the psychology of colonialism, Fanon argued that using racism, the downtrodden end up competing with their persecutors. The internalization of contempt towards ”others” by „white” founders of „Liberty, Equality and Fraternity” who designed the European civilization to take into account those alike, as the contemporary constitutions do not regard the rights of those who are different.[81] Disregarding the Roma children’s right embodies a symbolic of ethnic and nationalist framework that must be protected, maintained and polished at to a level high enough to generate sufficient "social control".[82] Within the context of abuse and ethnic discrimination, right-wing bigotry and "systematically evacuation",[83] Roma children found in settlements are exposed to further physical beatings and maltreatment, psychological or sexual abuse, drugs and police brutality.[84] The state authorities would essential to have a clearly defined role in the protection of these children in accordance with the best interest of this children.

 

Dinu Liviu Iulian is from Romania and graduated Sociology in Romania. Currently he is a master student at the University of Bristol in United Kingdom. Liviu studies at the Faculty of Social Science and Law specializing in the field of Ethnicity and Multiculturalism 

 


[1] In this paper I will use the terms of: "Roma ethnic minority" or "Roma" (as a narrow term) as fallow: the term of "ethnic" refers to a definition provided by: Peoples, James; Bailey, Garrick (2010). Humanity: An Introduction to Cultural Anthropology (9th ed.). Wadsworth Cengage learning, pg. 389.  Also, the term of "minority" refers to a definition provided by: Wirth, Louis: "The Problem of Minority Groups.", page 347 in Ralph Linton (ed.), The Science of Man in the World Crisis. New York: Columbia University Press, 1945.

[2] In this paper the term "begging" refers to definition provided by: Cherneva, Iveta. "Human Trafficking For Begging." Buffalo Human Rights Law Review 17 (2011): 25. LexisNexis Academic: Law Reviews.

[3] Mendick, Robert (2013, July, 27). Truth about the Romanian beggars of Park Lane. The Telegraph. Retrieved from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/immigration/10206553/Truth-about-the-Romanian-beggars-of-Park-Lane.html

[4] I will use the term "children’s" as referring to any person under the age of 18 according with Convention on the Rights of the Child, U.N. General Assembly Document A/RES/44/25 (12 December 1989), Part 1, Art. 1

[5] Flore Galaud, Le Figaro, Paris, Police Seek Solution to Child Begging ("La police parisienne face aux enfants mendicants"), Translated by Brenna M. T. Daldorph, October 25, 2011/ http://plus.lefigaro.fr/note/paris-police-seek-solution-to-child-begging-20111025-580979

[6] Bowling, Benjamin, Violent Racism: Victimization, Policing and Social Context, July 1998. (Paras 21-22, pp 3-4).

[7] Gaertner, S.L., and J.F. Dovidio. 1986. The aversive form of racism. In: J.F. Dovidio and S.L. Gaertner (Eds.), Prejudice, Discrimination and Racism: Theory and Research. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, pp. 61-89.

[8] Cavallier, Françoi; Ferrand, Jean  Paul ; Ducat, Philippe;  Magrard, Pierre, Philosophical Synthesis - Man,  Ed. Antet,  Bucharest,  1999, p.248

[9] Pascal, Lamy, (2011, June 14), Panglaykim Memorial Lecture on Harnessing Global Diversity, Lamy Underlines Need For „Unity in Our Global Diversity”, Global Policy Forum, Available at: https://www.globalpolicy.org/globalization/defining-globalization/50338-lamy-underlines-need-for-unity-in-our-global-diversity.html

[10] Siddharth Kara, Sex Trafficking: Inside the Business of Modern Slavery. (New York – Chichester: Columbia University Press, 2009), p. 24

[11] United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division, (2013, October, 3-4), World Migration in Figures, A joint contribution by UN-DESA and the OECD to the United Nations High-Level Dialogue on Migration and Development, , Available at: http://www.oecd.org/els/mig/World-Migration-in-Figures.pdf

[12] Everett S. Lee (1966), A Theory of Migration, University of Pennsylvania, Demography, Vol. 3, No. 1. (1966), pp. 47-57

[13] Bennett, Tony (2007). Habitus clivé: aesthetics and politics in the work of Pierre Bourdieu. New Literary History, 38(1) pp. 201–228.

[14] Bourdieu, Pierre. The Forms of Capital: English version published 1986 in J.G. Richardson's Handbook for Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education, pg. 241–258.

[15] Everett S. Lee (1966), A Theory of Migration, University of Pennsylvania, Demography, Vol. 3, No. 1. (1966), pp. 47-57

[16] Kahanec, Martin and Zimmermann, Klaus F. Migration and Globalization: Challenges and Perspectives for the Research Infrastructure Discussion Paper No. 3890, December 2008, Available at: http://ftp.iza.org/dp3890.pdf

[17] DFID, House of Commons International Development Committee, Migration and Development: How to make migration work for poverty reduction, Sixth Report of Session 2003–04, pg. 3

[18] Everett S. Lee (1966), A Theory of Migration, University of Pennsylvania, Demography, Vol. 3, No. 1. (1966), pp. 47-57.

[19] United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and The Protocols Thereto, December, 204, pg. 43

[20] Danzig, Jon (2013, September, 29), Should UK end EU membership to stop ‘Roma beggars’? EU ROPE. Retrieved from : http://eu-rope.ideasoneurope.eu/2013/09/29/should-uk-end-eu-membership-to-stop-%E2%80%98roma-beggars%E2%80%99/

[21] European Roma Rights Centre and People in Need. Breaking the silence. Trafficking in Romani Communities. (2011, March). pg. 12

[22] European Roma Rights Centre and People in Need. Breaking the silence. Trafficking in Romani Communities. (2011, March). pg. 70

[23] Necula, Florin (2013, August, 10). Belgium: Romanian Mafia rent thousands of children they sent to beg. Ziare.com. Retrieved from: http://www.ziare.com/diaspora/rromi-strainatate/belgia-mafia-romaneasca-inchiriaza-mii-de-copii-pe-care-ii-trimite-la-cersit-1250822

[24] Galaud, Flore. (2011, November, 25). Paris Police Seek Solution to Child Begging. Le Figaro. Retrieved from: http://plus.lefigaro.fr/note/paris-police-seek-solution-to-child-begging-20111025-580979

[25]Ziarul Romanesc.ro (2013, April, 23). Roma children in Romania, taken from schools and forced to beg in Scotland. Retrieved from: http://www.ziarulromanesc.net/observator/actualitate/2036-copii-romi-din-romania-luai-din-coli-i-forai-s-cereasc-in-scoia.html

[26] Commission of the European Communities (2002)

[27] Barbara Limanowska, Trafficking in Human Beings in South Eastern Europe (2005)

[28] European Roma Rights Centre and People in Need. Breaking the silence. Trafficking in Romani Communities. (2011, March).

[29] European Roma Rights Centre and People in Need. Breaking the silence. Trafficking in Romani Communities. (2011, March). pg. 11

[30] Convention on the Rights of the Child, U.N. General Assembly, Document A/RES/44/25 (12 December 1989)

[31] Treaty of Lisbon amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community, signed at Lisbon, 13 December 2007

[32] International Labour Organization Convention No. 29 on Forced Labour (1930).

[33] Protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children, supplementing the United National Convention against Transnational organized crime. U.N. General Assembly. 2000

[34] United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and The Protocols Thereto, December, 204, pg. 43

[35] International Labour Organization. (2009). Training manual to fight trafficking in children for labor, sexual and other forms of exploitation. Textbook 2: Action against child trafficking at policy and outreach levels. pg. 11

[36] Beresnevièiûtë, Vida, Dimensions of Social Integration: Appraisal of Theoretical Approaches, Ethnicity Studies 2003, Institute for social research, Vilnius, pg. 96

[37] In this paper the term "antisocial behaviour" refers to definition provided by: Berger, Kathleen Stassen (2003). The Developing Person through Childhood and Adolescence, 6th edition. Worth Publishers, pg. 302

[38]Adams, Guy (2013, February, 18). Mafia bosses who can't wait to flood Britain with beggars: While politicians dither over new wave of immigration from Eastern Europe, ruthless gang masters are rubbing their hands with glee. Retrievied from: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2280294/The-mafia-bosses-wait-flood-Britain-beggars-While-politicians-dither-new-wave-immigration-Eastern-Europe-ruthless-gangmasters-rubbing-hands-glee.html

[39] In this paper the term "antisocial behaviour" refers to definition provided by: Berger, Kathleen Stassen (2003). The Developing Person through Childhood and Adolescence, 6th edition. Worth Publishers, pg. 302

[40] Dawar, Anil (2013, July, 16). Romania told: Come and deal with your beggars. Sunday Express. Retrieved from: http://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/415099/Romania-told-Come-and-deal-with-your-beggars

[41]Tesar, Catalina, "Good traditional Gypsy" in Romania, beggar-ethicized abroad. Public policies re-presentation and work ethic to Roma Cortorari. Edited by Toma, Stefánia and Fosztó, László. Spectrum. Social research on Roma. Publisher Institute for Research on National Minorities and Publisher Kriterion. 2010, pg. 281

[42] Cana, Petrisor (2014, July, 23) Searches to factory of beggars. Poor children were recruited and exploited in Paris. EVZ.ro. Retrieved from: http://www.evz.ro/perchezitii-la-fabrica-de-cersetori-copii-saraci-erau-racolati-si-exploatati-la-paris.html

[43] Farry, Oliver (2013, September, 27). Roma deportations split French government. France 24. Retrieved from: http://www.france24.com/en/20130927-france-division-socialist-party-roma-gypsies-people-valls-duflot-immigration-elections/

[44] Sheldrick, Giles (2014, January, 11). Romanian gangs ‘behind half of pickpocketing. Sunday Express. Retrieved from: http://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/453277/Romanian-gangs-behind-half-of-pickpocketings

[45] Adams, Guy (2013, February, 18). Mafia bosses who can't wait to flood Britain with beggars: While politicians dither over new wave of immigration from Eastern Europe, ruthless gang masters are rubbing their hands with glee. Retrievied from: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2280294/The-mafia-bosses-wait-flood-Britain-beggars-While-politicians-dither-new-wave-immigration-Eastern-Europe-ruthless-gangmasters-rubbing-hands-glee.html

[46] Wires, With (2012, April, 12) Spiegel.de, Wave of Legal Complaints: Swiss Magazine Under Fire for 'Racist' Roma Cover, Retrieved from: http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/swiss-magazine-under-fire-for-roma-cover-a-826863.html

[47] Roma Rights World Press (2011, July, 11) EU Commission not concerned by discriminatory treatment of Roma beggars in Luxembourg (PR). Retrieved from: http://romarights.wordpress.com/2011/07/11/eu-commission-not-concerned-by-discriminatory-treatment-of-roma-beggars-in-luxembourg/

[48] Farry, Oliver (2013, September, 27). Roma deportations split French government. France 24. Retrieved from: http://www.france24.com/en/20130927-france-division-socialist-party-roma-gypsies-people-valls-duflot-immigration-elections/

[49] Furtuna, Dorian (2014, July, 17), Lupudacicblogg, The treat of Europe? How are treated Roma and Eastern Europeans in the EU Retrieved from: https://lupuldacicblogg.wordpress.com/2014/07/17/paria-europei-cum-sunt-tratati-romii-si-est-europenii-in-ue/

[50] ERRC (2003, May 9). ERRC Sues Denmark Regarding Forced Expulsions of Kosovo Roma. Retrieved from: http://www.errc.org/article/errc-sues-denmark-regarding-forced-expulsions-of-kosovo-roma/304

[51] Bohan, Christine (2014, July 1) “Ethnic profiling” a factor in removal of Roma children, report finds. The Journal.ie. Retrieved from: http://www.thejournal.ie/report-roma-children-families-gardai-1548394-Jul2014/

[52] Evans, Max (2014, January, 2). Romanian immigrants to be deported after Border Agency swoop. Express. Retrieved from: http://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/451645/Romanian-immigrants-to-be-deported-after-Border-Agency-swoop

[53] Arash Abizadeh, „Democratic Theory and Border Coercion: No Right to Unilaterally Control Your Own

Borders,” Political Theory, (2008): 38.

[54] Joseph Carens, „Aliens and Citizens: The Case for Open Borders” in Ronald Beiner (ed.), Theorizing Citizenship (New York: State University of New York Press, 1995), 230.

[55] EU Framework for National Roma Integration Strategies up to 2020, Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/justice/policies/discrimination/docs/com_2011_173_en.pdf

[56] France/Romania: Statewatch article - Ratification of agreement to increase repatriations of unaccompanied minors underway (2008, September) Statewatch News Online, Statewatch article: RefNo# 28321, Retrieved from: http://database.statewatch.org/print.asp?aid=28321&

[57] Le Cleve, Alexandre, Horse la Rue Press Release (2010, August, 31) Retrieved from: http://www.horslarue.org/images/stories/Presse/Communiqus/Communique_de_presse_31082010.pdf

[58] Suddath, Claire (2010, August, 26). Who Are Gypsies, and Why Is France Deporting Them? Time. Retrieved from: http://content.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,2013917,00.html

[59] European Roma Rights Centre and People in Need. Breaking the silence. Trafficking in Romani Communities. (2011, March). pg. 77

[60] Cana, Petrisor (2014, July, 23) Searches to factory of beggars. Poor children were recruited and exploited in Paris. EVZ.ro. Retrieved from: http://www.evz.ro/perchezitii-la-fabrica-de-cersetori-copii-saraci-erau-racolati-si-exploatati-la-paris.html

[61] Farry, Oliver (2013, September, 27). Roma deportations split French government. France 24. Retrieved from: http://www.france24.com/en/20130927-france-division-socialist-party-roma-gypsies-people-valls-duflot-immigration-elections/

[62] The Readmission Agreement between the Romanian Government and the Swiss Federal Council, and the Protocol for the implementation of the Agreement were concluded in 1996 and published in the Official Gazette of Romania no. 119, Part I, of June 17, 1996.

[63] Romani Criss Report (October, 2002) Repatriation of Romanian citizens from other states, during month of October 2002

[64] Mulholland, Rory (2014, June, 20) Roma boy attacked in Paris: the picture that will shock France, The Telegraph, Retrieved from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/france/10908942/Roma-boy-attacked-in-Paris-the-picture-that-will-shock-France.html

[65] Tamas, Adelina and Moise, Alina. Study on begging in relation to trafficking. National Agency against Trafficking in Persons. (2010), pg. 13

[66] ERRC Report (2002, November, 7) Collective Expulsions of Roma Around Europe... And Again the European Court of Human Rights Rules the Practice Illegal, Retrieved from: http://www.errc.org/article/collective-expulsions-of-roma-around-europe-and-again-the-european-court-of-human-rights-rules-the-practice-illegal/1652

[67] European Union Agency of Fundamental Rights, The situation of Roma EU citizens moving to and settling in other EU Member States (November 2009), available at: http://fra.europa.eu/fraWebsite/attachments/ROMAMovement-Comparative-report_en.pdf.

[68] European Roma Rights Centre and People in Need. Breaking the silence. Trafficking in Romani Communities. (2011, March). pg. 28

[69] Boudon, Raymond. Treaty of Sociology, Humanitas Publishing House, Bucharest, 1997, pg. 116 - 123

[70] Rubington, Earl and Weinberg, Martin S. The Study of Social Problems: Seven Perspectives Oxford University Press; 6 edition, pg.

[71] Tamas, Adelina and Moise, Alina. Study on begging in relation to trafficking. National Agency against Trafficking in Persons. (2010), pg. 70

[72] Lewis, H.D. (1948), ‘Collective responsibility’, Philosophy, 23 (84), 3-6.

[73] Martins, Herminio. Knowledge and Passion: Essays in Sociology and Social Theory in Honour of John Rex. I.B. Tauris,(1993), pg. 137-139

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