The aim of this paper is to show that the Macedonian Roma are unlawfully not allowed to leave Macedonian borders and they are subject to discriminatory practices and limitation of their rights. Macedonian authorities have to find a proper solution of the problem with the asylum seekers that does not confront the basic human rights and dignity.
The research paper is organized in four sections: Firstly, I am presenting the factual background of the situation in Macedonia regarding the visa-liberalization and the measures taken by the Macedonian government and the European Union. Secondly, I write about the freedom of movement, the concept, legal frame (national and international), state obligations and the violations that are done towards Roma. In the next part I analyze the asylum seekers from international perspective and the usage of the term fake-asylum seekers. In the last part I describe the concept and the negative aspects of ethnic profiling and discrimination in Macedonian borders (including national and international legal frames).
By introducing the pluralism in the Republic of Macedonia, Roma gained the right to take part and to contribute for democratic development in the political and legal system of the state. The practice of the democratic culture among the Roma community does not significantly differ from the overall democratic and political environment in the country. Every democratic country is undergoing a process of implementation of conditions such as rule of law, high level of civil and political liberties, freedom of expression, freedom of the press and freedom to form and join organizations. After 20 years of practicing pluralism in the country, the development of the political culture of Roma is presented in two periods – before the Ohrid Framework Agreement and after the Ohrid Framework Agreement. According to the results and the behavior of Roma political parties, it is evident that the parties failed optimally to utilize the given opportunities initiated by the principles of the Ohrid Framework Agreement.
The modifications of the Constitution in 2001 preloaded new principles with the Framework Agreement, which was a balance in the redefinition of the constituent elements of the state. This included major communities and the Roma community as well. This act represents an opportunity for the Roma political élite and at the same time commitment to support the multi-ethnic character of the state. In the period from 1990 to 1998, the Roma community in Macedonia formed three political parties represented by one Member of Parliament and lack of institutional representation. While in the period from 2002 to 2006 there were five more parties registered. This process was counterproductive for the Roma community due to the division of the Roma electorate instead of consolidation derived from the new constitutional changes. The Roma political parties entered the process of fragmentation of the electorate that further reduced the value and impact of the voice of the Roma community.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the political competition of Roma political parties in the period from 1991 to 2013 by using the behavioral theory by Kaare Strom. Furthermore, it explains how Roma political parties emerged and what the benefits of the Ohrid Framework Agreement were. The concluding remarks are presented at the very end of this paper.